As seen in Figure 1, the ice core record showed frequent sudden warmings and coolings of 15 (8 or more. Many of these changes happened in less than 10 years. In one case 11,600 years ago, when Earth emerged from the final phase of the most recent ice age (an event called the Younger Dryas), the Greenland ice core data showed that a 15 (8 warming occurred in less than a decade, accompanied by a doubling of snow accumulation in 3 years. Most of this doubling occurred in a single year. Current theories on the cause of abrupt climatic change focus on sudden shut downs and start ups of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) (also referred to as the thermohaline circulation), which is a global network of density driven ocean currents. The Meridional Overturning Circulation transports a Adidas Gazelle Og Maroon Gold
Studies of North Atlantic Ocean sediments have revealed that the Meridional Overturning Circulation has shut down many times in Ladies Adidas Gazelle Sale
tremendous amount of heat northward, keeping the North Atlantic and much of Europe up to 9 (5 warmer, particularly in the winter. A sudden shut down of this current would have a ripple effect throughout the ocean atmosphere system, forcing worldwide changes in ocean currents, and in the path of the atmospheric jet stream.
ratures. Accessing this treasure trove of climatic information is a huge undertaking cores of ice must be drilled miles deep in some of the most inhospitable places on Earth. In 1989 the National Science Foundation funded the $25 million Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2) to drill an ice core through the entire two mile depth of the Greenland ice sheet. At the same time, a separate European project (GRIP), drilled through the ice just 20 miles away, providing a crucial independent check of the GISP2 data. By 1993, both the GRIP and GISP2 drills had hit bedrock, and two miles of ice cores, preserving 110,000 years of climate history in year by year layers, were taken to laboratories for analysis. Adidas Gazelle Cheapest Uk
Ocean and lake sediment data from places such as California, Venezuela, and Antarctica have confirmed that these sudden climate changes affected not just Greenland, but the entire world. During the past 110,000 years, there have been at least 20 such abrupt climate changes. Only one period of stable climate has existed during the past 110,000 years the 11,000 years of modern climate (the "Holocene" era). "Normal" climate for Earth is the climate of sudden extreme jumps like a light switch flicking on and off. Figure 1. Average Yearly Temperatures in Greenland over the past 100,000 Years as inferred from Oxygen isotope analysis of the GISP2 Greenland ice core. Clow, "Temperature, accumulation, and ice sheet elevation in central Greenland throughout the last deglacial transition", Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 383 396, 1997.
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What the scientists found was surprising and unnerving. They had known from previous ice core and ocean sediment core data that Earth's climate had fluctuated significantly in the past. But what astonished them was the rapidity with which these changes occurred.
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